Every year peptic ulcer disease pud affects 4 milion people around the world. Current concepts in management of the perforated peptic ulcer. We describe the selective nonoperative management of 34 patients who had an initial diagnosis of perforated duodenal ulcer made on acute presentation between 19841994 in our. The present management of perforated duodenal ulcer is in flux. Background perforated peptic ulcer ppu is a common surgical. Peptic ulceration occurs due to acid peptic damage to the gastro duodenal mucosa, resulting in mucosal erosion that exposes the underlying tissues to the digestive action of gastro duodenal secretions. A 4 to 8week course of acidsuppressing medication will allow the ulcer to heal.
Management of duodenal ulcer had changed after the discovery of h. A peptic ulcer is an open sore or raw area in the lining of the stomach or intestine. Twelve years progress in surgery for perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers. These 35 cases represent 12% of 294 cases of duodenal and prepyloric peptic ulcers with perforation treated during the same period. Although helicobacter pylori and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are common causes, demographic. The cause of the duodenal ulcer is due to the infection by a bacteria called the helicobacter h. Peptic ulcer disease is common with a lifetime prevalence in the general population of 510% and an incidence of 0. Perforated duodenal ulcer is one of the most common causes of abdominal peritonitis. The management of perforated gastric ulcers sciencedirect.
Emergency surgery for perforated ulcer with mortality of 630% definitive ulcer surgery often deferred with shock, poorrisk patient, age 70, prolonged perforation, abscess, or generalized peritonitis. Highly selective vagotomy in the management of perforated duodenal ulcer. Theyre usually formed as a result of inflammation caused by the bacteria h. When is surgical management of peptic ulcer disease pud. N engl j med 1989 apr emergency surgery is generally considered the treatment of choice for perforated peptic ulcer, even though some perforations seal rapidly and do not require surgery. A peptic ulcer on the inside of the stomach lining is a gastric. Normally, the lining of the stomach and small intestines can protect itself against strong stomach acids. In patients with perforated peptic ulcer, what is the role of damage control surgery.
Helicobacter pylori duodenal colonization is a strong risk factor for the development of duodenal ulcer. The ulcer may be referred to as duodenal, gastric, or esophageal, depending on its location. Duodenal ulcer treatment varies from one patient to another, depending upon disease etiology and severity of the condition. The most common symptom of both gastric and duodenal ulcers is epigastric pain. The lifetime prevalence of developing ulcer disease in firstdegree relatives of ulcer patients is about three times greater than the general population. Surgical therapeutic management of perforated peptic ulcer. David is a 45yearold man, husband, and father of three.
Discussion duodenum is the second most common location to be affected by diverticula, after the colon. While treatment for stable duodenal ulcer is done with medication, bleeding ulcer calls for endoscopic therapy, while a perforated ulcer is treated with surgery. The diagnosis of a perforated duodenal ulcer in a rygp patient can be challenging, and there is variability in the surgical treatment, especially when it comes to the possible role of removing the gastric remnant. Presentations of peptic ulcer disease and gastritis usually are indistinguishable in the emergency department ed and, thus, the management is generally the same. Complications are encountered in 10%20% of these patients and 2%14% of the ulcers will perforate 2, 3. Other factors predisposing a person to ulcers include antiinflammatory medications and cigarette smoking. Vagotomy and emptying procedure in treatment of acute perforated duodenal ulcer arch.
Diagnosis and treatment of perforated or bleeding peptic. The ulcer was believed to be acute in 27 patients and chronic in 8. If laparotomy is undertaken and a straightforward duodenal ulcer encountered, closure with an omental patch is wellestablished as the optimal procedure. Pdf the management of large perforations of duodenal ulcers. The first report of a series of patients presenting with perforation of a duodenal ulcer was made in 1817 by travers. A crater ulcer in the lining of the beginning of the small intestine duodenum. A clinical case study duodenal ulcer perforation is the second most common abdominal emergency in our study. Pdf surgery for perforated peptic ulcer disease is one of the most common emergency procedures carried out in the western world. Surgical management of peptic ulcer disease todayindication, technique and outcome. Gastric and duodenal ulcers are both types of peptic ulcers.
The most discriminating symptom of pain awakening the patient from sleep between 123 a. Pdf diagnosis and management of duodenal perforations. The incidence of pud has been estimated at around 1. Surgical management of peptic ulcer disease uptodate. Surgical treatment of perforated peptic ulcer medscape emedicine. Perforated ulcers of the upper gastrointestinal tract are potentially complicated surgical emergencies. Diagnosis and management of perforated duodenal ulcers. The recommended biochemical and imaging investigations in the diagnosis of perforated peptic ulcer are as follows. Nonoperative treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer jama. A scarcity of highquality studies about the condition limits the knowledge base for clinical decision making, but a few published randomised trials are available. Perforated peptic ulcer is a common emergency condition worldwide, with associated mortality rates of up to 30%. A duodenal ulcer is usually caused by an infection with a germ bacterium called helicobacter pylori h.
They affect different parts of the digestive tract, but both can cause pain and discomfort, and serious complications if. In patients with bleeding peptic ulcer, which are the. In addition, a oneweek course of two antibiotics plus an acidsuppressing medicine will usually clear the h. Protocol for diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer in. Strategies to improve the outcome of emergency surgery for. Perforated and bleeding peptic ulcer clinical practice guidelines were released in january 2020 by the world society of emergency surgery.
To evaluate the pattern of presentation and mode of management of duodenal ulcer perforations. This protocol may be used by general practitioners, family doctors, and nurses. Approximately 2050% of duodenal ulcer patients report a positive family history. A noninvasive 24 hours stabilization of duodenal ulcer. Berne cjrosoff sr lrnyhus lmedwastell ced acute perforation of peptic ulcer. The role of endoscopy in the management of patients with. Perforated and bleeding peptic ulcer clinical practice. Duodenal ulcer perforations are a common surgical emergency, but literature is silent on the exact definition, incidence, management and complications of large perforations of duodenal ulcers.
Management of perforated duodenal ulcer surgical treatment. Indications for surgery in patients with peptic ulcer disease the indications for surgery for pud have recently been limited to the treatment of complicated pud. Peptic ulcer is an ulceration in the mucosal wall of the lower esophagus, stomach, pylorus, or duodenum. Introduction perforated peptic ulcer is a surgical emergency and is associated with shortterm mortality in up to 30% of patients and morbidity in up to 50%. The ulcer that develops on the uppermost portion of the small intestine and also on the inside lining of your stomach is known as the peptic ulcer. The classic triad of sudden onset of abdominal pain, tachycardia and. These ulcers can cause different symptoms, depending on where they are. Peptic ulcer disease pud results from an imbalance between stomach acidpepsin and mucosal defense barriers. In 2020, the world society of emergency surgery wses released guidelines for management of perforated and bleeding peptic ulcers. Acute perforations of the duodenum are estimated to occur in 210% of patients. The healthy diet for duodenal ulcer patients include fruits, veggies, grains, fat free dairy products, pasta, whole wheat bread, cereals, brown rice, beans, eggs, lean meats, fish, eggs, and poultry. Duodenal ulcer occurs in the first part of the small intestine.
In the emergency treatment of a perforated duodenal ulcer du, after surgical closure of the perforation and treatment of the secondary peritonitis, higly selective vagotomyhsv is a valid therapy to prevent recurrence of the underlying. We report the case of a 50yearold male smoker who presented in the emergency unit with acute generalized abdominal pain and guarding in the epigastric and right upper quadrant region. An alternative plan for the treatment of a perforated duodenal ulcer is proposed. After invention of the h2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors the role of elective surgery for duodenal ulcer has been drastically decreasing, but the incidence of perforation is not much changing. Surgical repair of perforated gastroduodenal ulcer has been extensively practiced in emergency clinical situations. Presentation and management of perforated duodenal ulcer. The earliest operative description was made by mikulicz in 1884 but the first successful operation for a perforated duodenal ulcer was not until 1894 over the last two decades there have been a number of advances in the management of perforated duodenal ulcer.
Perforation complicates duodenal ulcer about half as often as bleeding and most perforated ulcers are on the anterior surface of the duodenum. We present two cases of a perforated duodenal ulcer following rouxeny gastric bypass and discuss the management of these patients. Prognosis and treatment of acute perforated ulcer lancet 264. Diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease and h. A healthy diet for duodenal ulcer has low salt, bad fat content and sugar. More than half of the cases are female and they are usually older and. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of ulcer disease. Ulcer pain may not correlate with the presence or severity of ulceration. The great debates of earlier in the century regarding simple patch closure versus immediate definitive surgery have been complicated by the arguments for and against laparotomy, the introduction of. However, these same symptoms are also seen in of patients with nonulcer dyspepsia. Noninvasive conservation treatment is regaining the attention towards management of such ulcers. Management of perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers. Excessive gastric acid secretion is only one factor in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease.
Nonoperative management of perforated duodenal ulcer. Ppu presents as an acute abdominal condition, with. An intraabdominal abscess developed in 1 of the 35 patients. Background duodenal ulcer perforations are a common surgical emergency, but literature is silent on the exact definition, incidence, management and complications of large perforations of duodenal ulcers. However, complications related to peptic ulcer disease continue to occur and include bleeding, perforation, and gastric outlet obstruction. Protocol for diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer in adults. Pdf the majority of literature on the management of perforated duodenal ulcer comes from the west. The management of large perforations of duodenal ulcers.
Perforated gastric and duodenal ulcers pgdu continue to be one of surgical problems accompanied by a 30% mortality rate and complications up to 50% including an acute abdominal syndrome, limited or generalized peritonitis and a high risk of sepsis. There are a host of healthy food items for a patient suffering from duodenal ulcer. Hostile factors no gastric acid, no peptic ulcer is a misconception. Ulcer formation is caused by infection with helicobacter pylori. Decreased mucosal defense against gastric acid is another cause. All of the patients were under the age of 60 years and presented with stable vital signs. Perforation is one of the most catastrophic complications of peptic ulcer. Pdf surgical management of perforated peptic ulcer disease. It is estimated that 2% to 10% of patients with gastric or duodenal peptic ulcer perforation shall in the course of his life, being disproportionately greater mortality. For a couple of weeks, he has been feeling a slight pain in his stomach, which he thought was just heart burn. The traditional management of a perforated duodenal ulcer has been a graham omental patch and a thorough abdominal lavage.
Peptic ulcer disease is a leading cause of duodenal perforation. We will focus on the nowrecognized role of helicobacter pylori in the genesis of the majority of duodenal ulcers and on the high rate of success of therapy with a combination of antibiotics and a protonpump inhibitor or histamine 2 blocker in treatment of such ulcers. Perforated peptic ulcer ppu is a surgical emergency and is associated with shortterm mortality and morbidity in up to 30 and 50% of patients, respectively. Gastric and duodenal ulcers are types of peptic ulcer. Pdf management of perforated duodenal ulcer in a resource poor. Treatment goals in the acute setting are the relief of discomfort and protection of the gastric mucosal barrier to promote healing. Peptic ulcers are sores that develop in the lining of the stomach, lower esophagus, or small intestine.1134 869 560 1215 815 84 527 1502 466 571 1139 1478 1027 309 758 1490 133 1513 427 369 1425 1229 148 637 868 1487 229 1318 1018 1171 952 745 1151 1423 828 762 662 956 617 488 724 1310 317 333 1070